The United Nations Security Council has been told that the failure of Nigerian leaders to deal with diversity was the root cause of the Biafran crisis.
The person who made the presentation, was South Africa´s former president Thabo Mbeki, who lived in Nigeria for a few years in the late 70s during the anti-apartheid struggle.
Mbeki addressed the UN Security Council on Tuesday and listed African countries, apart from Nigeria, where the failure to deal with diversity was a root cause of conflict.
He blamed the current clashes in Ethiopia´s Tigray region, also on the failure to manage diversity.
Mbeki recalled that the Nigerian government was victorious against secessionist-seeking Biafra 50 years ago and its leaders announced “that they would follow a policy of no victor, no vanquished.”
Looking at the “painful example” of the ongoing conflict between the Ethiopian government and ethnic Tigrayans, Mbeki said, “this is exactly what Ethiopia needs.”
Thabo Mbeki cited “the centrality of failure properly to manage diversity” in the conflicts in Congo, Burundi, Ivory Coast and Sudan.
He pointed to the 2004 report of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission “which tells the naked truth, that it was as a result of the failure to manage diversity that the country experienced a very costly 11-year war which started in 1991” — and there is a similar failure to manage diversity “in the violent conflict which has been and is still going on in Cameroon.”
France´s U.N. ambassador, Nicolas De Riviere, had some additions.
In the Sahel region stretching across northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea, “terrorist groups use differences to stir up hatred between communities,” he said.
And ethnic and religious violence is also prevalent in the Middle East including Iraq, Yemen and Syria.
They spoke at a U.N. Security Council meeting on “Diversity, State Building and the Search for Peace” that was organized by Kenya, which holds the council presidency this month, and chaired by its president, Uhuru Kenyatta.
“The key message I wish to deliver today is that poor management of diversity is leading to grave threats to international peace and security,” Kenyatta said.
He said inequality within and between countries “is too often the result of exclusion on the basis of identity” that becomes institutionalized in governments and in economic relations.
“And it manifests in stereotyping and bigotry,” leading among other consequences to lack of work for billions of people simply based on who they are, he said.
“The result is a profound sense of grievance and bitterness that populists and demagogues can easily exploit,” Kenyatta said.
“It is fodder for terrorism, insurgencies, the rise of xenophobia, hate speech, divisive tribalism, as well as racism.”
U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres cited a U.N.-World Bank study that found “many conflicts are deeply rooted in longstanding inequalities among groups,” which leave people feeling excluded and marginalized because they are denied opportunities based on their culture, race, skin colour, ethnicity or income.
He pointed to the sharp increase in armed groups at the heart of conflicts — “rebels, insurgents, militias, criminal gangs and armed trafficking, terrorist and extremist groups” — as well as a rise in military coups.
While combatants can agree to end hostilities, Guterres warned, “without including a wide range of diverse voices at every step of this process — without bringing all people along — any peace will be short-lived.”
He said that women and young people must be “meaningful participants” and that “when we open the door to inclusion and participation, we take a giant step forward in conflict prevention and peacebuilding.”
Fawzia Koofi, the first woman to be deputy speaker of Afghanistan´s Parliament who left the country after the Taliban takeover on Aug. 15, said her country is the latest test of whether the global community can come together to uphold the principles of the U.N. Charter, including promoting the rule of law, justice and equality for men and women.
“There are serious reports that fundamental freedoms are being flouted,” she said.
“Women and girls are once again regarded as second-class citizens, literally. They are making us invisible again … (and) thousands of people from religious minorities and other minority groups are forced to flee their villages.”
Koofi said the Afghan situation shows how the imbalance in power is “at the roots of so much conflict and inequality.”
Rwandan President Paul Kagame, whose country was the scene of genocide in 1994 in which 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were massacred by the majority Hutu population., said sustainable peace can only be built if the root causes of conflict are understood by a broad range of the population, and it requires dialogue and search for solutions.
“It may not be possible to entirely prevent all conflict,” he said. “In fact, disagreements and grievances will always be there in one form or another. But the intensity and the impact of conflicts can be minimized by remaining attentive to local needs” and delivering “the results that citizens expect and deserve.”
Gov Masari kicks against indiscriminate release of bandits, rapists on bail
Governor Aminu Masari of Katsina State has frowned at what he called the indiscriminate release of suspected bandits, rapists and other criminals on bail by the courts.
Masari made this assertion shortly after the swearing in of three newly appointed high court judges in Katsina State, NAN reports.
The Governor called on the Nigerian Bar Association to implore its members that are in the habit of supporting criminals to secure bail through the instrument of fundamental right enforcement to be ethical and avoid compromise under cover.
“We are in an unusual time of serious security challenges and must therefore put heads together to address these unusual challenges.
“We have had incidents where suspected bandits, terrorists, armed robbers and rapists were released on bail only for them to commit the same offence.
“Such ugly incidents could have been averted if bail was not granted at all”, the Governor said.
“The overriding objective of every legal system, he said, is to deliver justice which is the best pivot and pillar that upholds the very best of decency and the best guarantee for peace, prosperity and good governance.
“The age long adage that Justice delayed is Justice denied, has been a thing of concern to the government.
“Thus there is the need to address the speed of justice among all stakeholders in the justice sector.
“It was in response to the Justice Sector Reform in the state that the state Administration of Criminal Justice Law (ACJL) 2019 and the state Penal Code Law, 2019 were repealed and replaced with the new laws of 2021,” he said.
The Governor noted that the new laws addressed the shortcomings observed in the 2019 law.
He further stressed that, with this development, all actors and stakeholders in the Justice sector will now work towards a coordinated approach to ensure speedy disposition of criminal cases which involves arrest, investigation and prosecution’.
Masari said the state government was seriously disturbed over the trend of blame shifting by the justice sector actors.
Masari therefore directed the state’s monitoring and coordination committee to discharge its statutory mandate by ensuring that all criminal cases are handled with deserved dispatch.
He further urged the committee to ensure that the ugly trend of releasing suspects with prima-facie records of crimes on bail is checked.
He further urged the new judges to consider their appointment as a call to duty that requires more dedication, professionalism and above all the fear of God.
Anthony Joshua’s rematch with Usyk officially confirmed
Anthony Joshua’s promoter, Eddie Hearn, has confirmed that he has triggered his rematch clause with Oleksandr Usyk.
The fight is expected to take place in March next year.
Usyk has already said he would like to defend his newly-won titles in Ukraine.
However, Hearn has claimed that the rematch will take place in the UK.
Joshua lost his WBA, IBF, WBO and IBO belts to Usyk via a unanimous decision last week.
“Today we officially triggered the rematch for the Oleksandr Usyk fight, which we’ll see early next spring.
“Back in the game and we’re looking for him to become three-time world champion.
“A few niggles in camp for AJ, Usyk had a bad cut, it’s officially triggered, we’ll sit down with K2 Promotions and I think March is when you’ll see that fight.
“This was a disappointing loss to a pound-for-pound great. We don’t need to get back in the game with 10-rounders, he needs to rip those belts off Usyk,” Hearn told DAZN.
Foden, De Bruyne rescue Man City against Liverpool
Manchester City twice came from behind to secure a draw at Liverpool in what was an enthralling Premier League encounter.
After dominating the first half, City then found ourselves behind after the break through Sadio Mane’s 59th-minute opener.
Man of the match Phil Foden then deservedly drew Pep Guardiola’s side level only for Mo Salah to strike again for the hosts with 14 minutes left.
However, a superb Kevin De Bruyne effort nine minutes from time ensured that the spoils were shared in what was a classic clash between the sides.
With a full house roaring the hosts on, City had to withstand a frenetic first 15 minutes with Liverpool enjoying the early territory and possession.
But having drawn the sting out of Jurgen Klopp’s side’s early pressure, City assumed the first half Anfield initiative.
And a moment of pure brilliance from Bernardo almost orchestrated a 20th-minute breakthrough.
The Portuguese midfielder demonstrated both strength and skill as he weaved and waltzed his way through a succession of Liverpool tackles after dispossessing Jordan Henderson before arcing an inviting through ball into the path of the recalled Phil Foden.
The England international took a touch on the left side of the box before thumping in a low shot which was blocked by Liverpool ‘keeper Alisson.
With City exploiting space down the left channel, Pep Guardiola’s side then saw an appeal for a potential penalty turned down after James Milner appeared to clip Foden as he bore in on goal.
However, both referee Paul Tierney and VAR were unmoved.
Yet more City pressure then saw De Bruyne power a diving header from Foden’s exquisite left-wing cross just too high.
And on the stroke of halftime, only a desperate diving block from Alisson denied Foden as he drove in on goal after a stunning 80-yard assist from Ederson.
The only thing missing from a magnificent all-around first-half display was a goal and the one nagging fear was that we might regret not making that pressure tell.
As if to reinforce that concern, Liverpool tested Ederson for the first time four minutes after the restart, the City keeper alert to the task as he smothered Diogo Jota’s snap shot.
And Liverpool’s first meaningful attack saw them take the lead on 59 minutes.
Salah was the architect, the Egyptian finding a pocket of space on the right flank and his precise reverse pass put Sadio Mane in space in the box, with the Senegalese striking firing home past the Ederson.
City though produced a stunning riposte on 69 minutes through the irrepressible Foden.
Jesus was the provider, gliding across the Liverpool box before threading an inviting ball to Foden on the left side of the box.
Foden then applied a magnificent finish, rifling a low drive into the corner of the net to finally reward our attacking endeavor.
Bernardo was then upended by Milner who was already on a yellow card but referee Tierney opted to take no further action.
However, with 14 minutes left out of nothing Liverpool then regained the lead through Salah.
The Egyptian produced a fine, jinking run on the right side of the box before despatching a powerful finish past Ederson.
But this City side have character as well as class.
And that was demonstrated in emphatic fashion on 81 minutes when we drew level again through De Bruyne.
Foden was the architect once again, his cross being deflected into the path of the Belgian who struck a superb 20 yard effort that went in on-off Matip.
Rodri then produced a crucial last-ditch block to deny Fabinho from five yards after Ederson had spilled a cross and Jesus could have won it only for his shot to be blocked.
Anfield saw Phil Foden produce one of his finest-ever displays during last February’s superb 4-1 win.
And, recalled to the starting line-up, the 21-year-old was at his incisive, mesmeric best once again on his return to Merseyside.
Deployed on the left side of our attacking trident, Foden gave former City star James Milner a tough, testing afternoon with his movement and vision a joy to behold.
Only some last-gasp heroics from Liverpool keeper Alisson prevented Foden from scoring in the first half.
But his endeavor was justly rewarded 20 minutes from time when he struck in stunning fashion.
City: Ederson, Walker, Dias (c), Laporte, Cancelo, Rodrigo, De Bruyne, Bernardo, Grealish (Sterling 65), Jesus, Foden
Subs: Steffen, Carson, Stones, Ake, Torres, Fernandinho, Mahrez, Palmer
Liverpool: Alisson, Milner, Matip, Van Dijk, Robertson, Henderson, Fabinho, Jones, Salah, Jota (Firmino 68), Mane
Subs: Konate, Keita, Gomez, Oxlade-Chamberlain, Minamino, Tsimikas, Kelleher, N Williams
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